Uterine abnormalities occur in 34-62% of infertile women and can be detected by hysteroscopy, NCBI study finds

According to the WHO, infertility is currently a global health problem. It is ranked by the WHO as the 5th most severe disability in the young population. A study on NCBI by researchers shows that uterine anomaliescongenital or acquired they are common in infertile patients occur in 34–62% of these women.

Hysteroscopy is a TOP solution for the evaluation of the uterine cavity, it represents a stage during the examination of infertility and in the investigation of its causes. Hysteroscopy is an effective procedure through which they can be diagnosed and treated uterine pathologies. It is also indicated during the basic evaluation of infertility, through imaging of the reproductive organs. Doctors say that this minimally invasive gynecological method it is recommended for the confirmation and treatment of intracavitary lesions detected by other imaging methods.

What abnormalities can be found by hysteroscopy?

Researchers say that the most common uterine anomalies can be effectively diagnosed by hysteroscopy in the case of infertile women and in the case of those suspected of certain uterine pathologies.

Hysteroscopy is prescribed to women to diagnose:

· Causes of infertility

· Uterine abnormalities such as uterine polyps, endometrial polyps

· Uterine fibroids.

The incidence of polyps is high, it has been estimated up to about 38.5% in primary infertility and up to 17% in secondary infertility. As for uterine fibroids, they have been found in 5-10% of infertile women (shows a study on sciencedirect.com).

Through the hysteroscopy procedure with guided biopsy, endometrial polyps and intracavitary fibroids can be detected.

Clinical studies also demonstrate that hysteroscopy can also help detection of other anomalies in women, such as:

· Submucosal fibroids

· Uterine synechiae

· Endometritis

· Endometrial hyperplasia

· Uterine septum

· Placental tissue residue.

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This procedure is minimally invasive, does not require incisions or hospitalization, it is done in an outpatient setting. The patient's position should be gynecological, with both knees bent and pointed slightly towards the shoulder. The patient is sedated with cervical dilation or not; this depends on the type of intervention. The area is prepared using a sterile preparation before the intervention.

Cleaning the vagina and cervix with a preparation antiseptic is very important if we think about what kind of bacteria colonize the lower genital tract and what possible infections it can lead to. It's about streptococci, infections that could worry any woman. Endometritis – infection of the uterine lining caused by bacteria – is also serious, whether acute or chronic. In certain cases, peritonitis can also develop, when there is a risk that the infection will reach the fallopian tubes.

After preparing the area, it is inserted hysteroscope into the uterine cavity and a progressive examination is carried out a the endocervical canal, the tubal openings and the inside of the uterus. After the procedure, if necessary, doctors will also prescribe antibiotic treatment to prevent infection.

There are other advantages of this gynecological procedure, this can be seen in hysteroscopy cases on Embryos.ro. Here a thin hysteroscope is used, dilation of the cervix is ​​not necessary, as in the case of diagnostic hysteroscopy. This helps a lot to minimize the discomfort felt by patients postoperatively.

One advantage is that hysteroscopy can improve pregnancy rates in women with unexplained infertility, in women undergoing infertility treatment. Such treatments are: artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Hysteroscopy can also detect tiny abnormalities in the uterus, which is useful in making a diagnosis. It is performed during thorough examinations and thus can help to identify abnormalities and health problems of the cervical canal, the inner space of the uterus and the openings of the fallopian tubes.

Hysteroscopy can facilitate subsequent artificial insemination in women who choose this procedure to get pregnant.

In conclusion, hysteroscopy is a screening test that helps to finding out the causes of infertility. Women can consult a specialist to do this procedure, in order to check their uterine infertility. Hysteroscopy also looks at implantation problems. An ultrasound or hysterosalpingogram (radiological investigation to visualize the anatomy of the uterus, fallopian tubes) can also be performed. If there are suspicions of serious problems, such as a polyp or fibroid, then hysteroscopy is performed for a more detailed medical examination of the uterine cavity.